What parts does a computer numerical control system consist of metal turned parts


  The CNC system is the core of all CNC equipment. The main control object of the CNC system is the displacement of the coordinate axis (including moving speed, direction, position, etc.), and its control information mainly comes from CNC machining or motion control programs. Therefore, as the most basic composition of the numerical control system, it should include: the input/output device of the program, the numerical control device, and the servo drive.

  1. Input/output device

  The role of the input/output device is to input and output data such as CNC machining or motion control programs, machining and control data, machine parameters, coordinate axis positions, and detection switch states. Keyboard and display are the most basic input/output devices necessary for any numerical control equipment. In addition, depending on the CNC system, it can also be equipped with a photoelectric reader, a tape drive or a floppy disk drive. As a peripheral device, a computer is one of the commonly used input/output devices.

  2. Numerical control device

  The numerical control device is the core of the numerical control system. It consists of input/output interface lines, controllers, arithmetic units and memories. The function of the numerical control device is to compile, calculate and process the data input by the input device through the internal logic circuit or control software, and output various information and instructions to control each part of the machine tool to perform specified actions.

  Among these control information and commands, the most basic ones are the feed speed, feed direction and feed displacement command of the coordinate axis. It is generated after interpolation operation, provided to the servo drive, amplified by the drive, and finally controls the displacement of the coordinate axis. It directly determines the movement path of the tool or coordinate axis.

  In addition, according to different systems and equipment, such as: on CNC machine tools, there may also be spindle speed, steering and start and stop commands; tool selection and exchange commands: cooling and lubricating device start and stop commands; workpiece loosening Opening and clamping commands; auxiliary commands such as indexing of the worktable. In the basic numerical control system, they are provided to the external auxiliary control device in the form of signals through the interface. The auxiliary control device performs the necessary compilation and logic operations on the above signals, and drives the corresponding executive devices after amplification, and drives the mechanical parts of the machine tool. , hydraulic pneumatic and other auxiliary devices to complete the action specified by the command.

  3. Servo drive

  Servo drives are usually composed of servo amplifiers (also known as drives, servo units) and actuators. In CNC machine tools, AC servo motors are generally used as actuators; in advanced high-speed machining machine tools, linear motors have been used. In addition, in the CNC machine tools produced before the 1980s, there are also cases where DC servo motors are used; for simple CNC machine tools, stepper motors can also be used as executive devices. The form of the servo amplifier depends on the execution device, and it must be used in conjunction with the drive motor.

  The above are the most basic components of the CNC system. With the development of numerical control technology and the improvement of the performance level of machine tools, the functional requirements of the system are also increasing. In order to meet the control requirements of different machine tools, ensure the integrity and unity of the numerical control system, and facilitate users to use, commonly used and more advanced The numerical control system generally has an internal programmable controller as an auxiliary control device for the machine tool. In addition, on the metal cutting machine tool, the spindle drive device can also become a part of the numerical control system; on the closed-loop numerical control machine tool, the measurement and detection device is also indispensable to the numerical control system. For the advanced numerical control system, sometimes even the computer is used as the man-machine interface and data management, input/output equipment of the system, so that the function of the numerical control system is stronger and the performance is more perfect.

  In a word, the composition of the numerical control system depends on the performance of the control system and the specific control requirements of the equipment, and its configuration and composition are very different. Except for the input/output device of the machining program, the numerical control device, and the three most basic components of the servo drive In addition, there may be more controls.

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